Historical Evolution of Piano Mechanisms: Viennese Action, English Action, Erard Action

The piano is an exquisite musical instrument with a rich history and a captivating sound. Understanding the mechanisms that bring this instrument to life is essential for musicians and piano enthusiasts.

In this blog post, we will embark on a fascinating journey to explore the historical evolution of piano mechanisms, focusing on three prominent types: Viennese Action, English Action, and Erard Action. By delving into their origins, characteristics, and influences, we can better appreciate the intricate craftsmanship that has shaped piano performance throughout history.

Viennese Action

The Viennese Action is significant in piano history, originating in Vienna during the 18th century. Developed by Johann Andreas Stein and his sons, this mechanism introduced several innovations that revolutionized piano design and performance.

Key Characteristics and Innovations: The Viennese Action stands out with its lightweight construction, escapement mechanism, and intimate connection between the pianist and the instrument. The lightweight nature of the action allows for quicker repetition of notes and enhances the instrument’s responsiveness. Pianists can easily execute rapid passages and achieve delicate nuances in their playing. The escapement mechanism, achieved through leather or felt strips, allows the hammer to escape quickly after striking the string, facilitating a more controlled and expressive touch.

Prominent Makers and Associated Composers: Prominent piano makers associated with Viennese Action include the Stein and Streicher families. Their pianos gained popularity among renowned composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, and Ludwig van Beethoven. These composers appreciated the delicate touch and expressive qualities of the Viennese instruments. Notable compositions written specifically for Viennese Action pianos include Mozart’s Sonata in C Major, K. 330, and Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 8 in C minor, Op. 13 (“Pathétique”).

English Action

The English Action emerged in the late 18th century as a response to the Viennese Action. English piano makers sought to improve the Viennese design by introducing new elements that enhanced the instrument’s power, volume, and versatility.

Key Features and Innovations: The English Action distinguished itself with a heavier construction, a double escapement mechanism, and check and repetition levers. The increased weight of the action, achieved by adding more substantial components, resulted in a greater dynamic range and projection. Pianists could achieve a broad palette of tonal colours, from delicate pianissimos to powerful fortissimos. The double escapement mechanism allowed for faster repetition of notes, enabling pianists to execute rapid passages with precision. The check and repetition levers helped regulate the action, ensuring proper alignment and control, leading to more consistent and reliable performance.

Prominent Maker and Associated Composers: John Broadwood & Sons, one of the most esteemed piano manufacturers of the time, played a pivotal role in developing and popularising the English Action. Their pianos gained favour among renowned composers such as Frédéric Chopin, Robert Schumann, and Franz Liszt. Chopin’s works, in particular, showcase the expressive capabilities and virtuosic demands of English Action. Compositions like his Ballades and Nocturnes exemplify the instrument’s power and versatility, allowing pianists to convey various emotions.

Erard Action

The Erard Action, named after its creator Sébastien Érard, emerged in the early 19th century as an evolution of the English Action. Érard sought to refine the existing mechanisms by introducing innovative features that improved the piano’s touch and overall performance.

Distinctive Elements and Innovations: The Erard Action introduced the concept of a single escapement mechanism, repetition springs, and a unique double escapement for the treble notes. The single escapement mechanism and repetition springs allowed pianists to achieve greater control and agility in their playing. The double escapement in the treble range allowed for faster repetition, enhancing the instrument’s versatility for executing complex musical passages.

Renowned Musicians and Associated Composers: Erard pianos quickly gained recognition for their exceptional craftsmanship and innovative design. Notable musicians such as Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt, and Claude Debussy were avid performers and advocates of Erard pianos. Chopin, in particular, had a close association with the Erard brand, often performing on and composing for their instruments. His preference for the Erard piano is well-documented, and his compositions, such as his Études and Nocturnes, showcase the unique qualities of the Erard Action.

Comparison and Contrast

While each mechanism—Viennese Action, English Action, and Erard Action—has distinct characteristics, a comparative analysis can provide valuable insights into their design, touch, and tonal qualities.

Mechanism Design: The Viennese Action is known for its lightweight construction and escapement mechanism, emphasizing responsiveness and expressiveness. The English Action prioritizes power and volume through heavier construction, check, and repetition levers. The Erard Action combines elements from both designs, balancing agility and control.

Touch and Feel: The Viennese Action provides a delicate and intimate connection between the pianist and the instrument, ideal for nuanced expressions. The English Action offers a more substantial touch, allowing for greater dynamic range and projection. The Erard Action strikes a balance, providing control and agility while maintaining a connection with the instrument.

Tonal Qualities: Viennese pianos often exhibit a warm and mellow tone, suitable for the classical repertoire. English pianos produce a brighter and more assertive tone, well-suited for romantic and virtuosic works. Erard pianos are known for their clarity, balance, and tonal richness, making them versatile for various musical styles.

It is essential to acknowledge that each mechanism has advantages and disadvantages, and personal preferences play a significant role in determining a pianist’s choice of instrument.

Legacy and Modern Adaptations

Despite the passage of time, the influence of Viennese, English, and Erard Actions can still be observed in modern piano manufacturing and performance.

Replicas and Adaptations: While many pianos today utilize modern mechanisms such as the Renner or Abel Actions, the historical mechanisms’ legacy remains. Some piano manufacturers offer replicas or adaptations of Viennese, English, or Erard Actions, allowing musicians and enthusiasts to experience the unique characteristics of these historical designs.

Hybrid Actions: Furthermore, contemporary piano technicians and designers draw inspiration from these mechanisms to create hybrid actions that combine the best elements of each. These innovations aim to provide pianists with instruments catering to their artistic needs and preferences.


The historical evolution of piano mechanisms, exemplified by the Viennese Action, English Action, and Erard Action, showcases the ingenuity and craftsmanship of piano makers throughout history. Understanding each mechanism’s distinctive features and influences provides a deeper appreciation for the diversity of piano design and performance possibilities.

Whether you prefer the delicate touch of the Viennese Action, the powerful projection of the English Action, or the refined control of the Erard Action, each mechanism offers a unique musical experience. Exploring these mechanisms’ historical context and legacy opens up a world of possibilities for pianists, composers, and enthusiasts alike, enabling them to delve into the rich tapestry of piano music with a deeper understanding and appreciation.

By embracing the historical evolution of piano mechanisms, we honour the artisans and innovators who have shaped the piano’s development over the centuries. Their contributions continue to resonate in modern piano design and inspire future advancements, ensuring that the piano remains an instrument of timeless beauty and artistic expression.

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